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Senior practitioners from many industries sharp analysis of the status quo and role of China's indus
专栏:Industry information
发布日期:2018-01-08
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n terms of the integrity of the industrial system, China has the only 39 industries, 191 sub-categories and 525 sub-categories in the world, making it the only country in the world that has all the in...

n terms of the integrity of the industrial system, China has the only 39 industries, 191 sub-categories and 525 sub-categories in the world, making it the only country in the world that has all the industrial sectors in the United Nations Industrial Classification. All of the countries listed in the UN Industrial Classification Industrial categories can be found in China. If a manufacturing company in China to fight a half hour phone can be completed supporting the work to other countries may take two weeks to get.

The company is located in:

1, modern industrial system, all industries can be divided into a total of 39 major industrial categories, 191 sub-categories, 525 sub-categories. A complete industrial system pays more attention to big but not sophisticated.

 

2. According to the degree of industrial system integrity, China has the largest industrial cluster of 39 categories, 191 middle classes and 525 sub-categories in the world, making it the only country in the world with all the industrial sectors in the United Nations Industrial Classification. As listed in the UN Industrial Classification All the industrial categories can be found in China. If a manufacturing company in China to fight a half hour phone can be completed supporting the work to other countries may take two weeks to get.

 

Followed by the United States, the specific data seen before, now can not find, but should also occupy 94%, then Russia, the European Union, Japan barely count the last (mainly civilian manufacturing system).

 

3, the role of a complete industrial system is mainly reflected in the external competitiveness and national defense forces.

 

In the foreign trade competition, a more complete industrial system can reduce the cost of supporting industrial production, facilitate the production of products of better quality and cheaper, and strengthen the competitive advantage of domestic products in international trade. Due to the impact of globalization, many raw materials, semi-finished products and products imported from abroad are more advantageous than domestic ones. Therefore, it is not necessary to maintain a 100% industrial output, but will increase the cost of products. This is why the industrial systems in other countries except China are not absolutely complete.

 

A 100% industrial system, whose greatest value is embodied in the war, is capable of producing all its own war products independently of the foreign ones. In the wars between small countries and big powers, the major powers could eliminate small states with only a few advanced products. However, in the war between major powers, the gap between cutting-edge technologies was not large enough for one side to completely resist. Therefore, at this time, The mass production of mid-range weapons is more practical than the slow production of a handful of expensive high-end weapons. Examples are the tank wars in Germany and the Soviet Union.

 

Since the end of World War II, the world has been dominated by whites and monopolized the largest number of resources and profits in the world. China is a heterogeneous in this international system. Communists have a saying: "Peace is sought through struggle. Peace and peace are sacrificed by seeking concessions." China has not only successively had military conflicts and even wars with the United States and the Soviet Union, but also encountered the issue of jointly dividing up the two countries in the Soviet Union and the United States. Therefore, the dangerous moment of the demise of China lies on the neck of China, an absolutely complete and unsuspecting industrial system , It has become China's most realistic choice.

 

Of course, up to now, the value of a complete industrial system to China is still great, which is of great significance to China's industrial upgrading. Even if it is all kinds of highly sophisticated products criticized, many of China's technological capabilities are among the top in the world. Backward and advanced, depends on who compared with, let alone China's technology catch-up, mergers and acquisitions so fast.

 

Why a complete industrial system is so important to a country. This is because if the industrial system depends on the outside world, the entire economy of the country may be seriously damaged in the conflict.

 

Let us give a simple example. North Korea did not always suffer so much. In the past, North Korea used to have a higher standard of living than both China and South Korea. Later, when the Soviet Union collapsed, the Penghu collapsed, and North Korea did not receive enough oil and machinery parts and technologies. As a result, oil and agriculture collapsed and the mechanized system collapsed and became what it is now. Of course, North Korea is a small country which in itself is not enough to accommodate a complete industrial system. This is also an advantage of China as a great power.

 

Do not look at China, many things still need to be imported (such as chips), if really cut off the supply, China can still produce low-end chips are available, despite the low yield, high power consumption, slow, but the support of the industrial system or Enough.

 

Therefore, the meaning of a complete industrial system in national security is very significant. No matter which country wants to threaten the country, they are incapable of defeating the country's economic system through the trade embargo. This makes a country occupy a favorable position in international conflicts.

 

From the perspective of economic development, as a country's industry is relatively complete, foreign investment, it is easy to find the manufacturer from the local, greatly reducing the cost of production (imported parts from abroad not only need to pay shipping costs, often have to pay customs duties ). This has led to a large number of industries in China having to stay in China even though labor costs have already been significantly higher than in many developing countries (of course, a sound infrastructure is also an important reason).

 

Therefore, a complete industrial system is not only good for national security, but also a great help to economic development.

 

The earliest complete industrial system in China was established on 156 projects aided by the Soviet Union. This makes even if China and the Soviet Union, the United States at the same time evil, the domestic economic system will not collapse.

 

The world now has a complete industrial system, I am afraid that only China, the United States, the European Union, Russia relatively reluctantly. Japan counted half, subject to more limited natural resources. One of the strongest in the United States and the EU, in virtually all areas can reach the world's leading level. Although China's basic materials, precision instruments, electronics and other aspects of the level of usable, but it is indeed poor. Russia degenerated more seriously.

 

Much of the United States does not produce, not that it can not produce. Just unproductive to produce. Specific technology, it is still there. When necessary, the United States will still be able to resume its production capacity.

 

manufacturing. It is said that after a five-axis came out, the prices of foreign products were directly cut. Moreover, the domestic five-axis is also said to be all kinds of rough.

 

But this thing is poor 100 years, it is someone else to eat meat you drink northwest wind. 60 years is the poor people eat meat leftovers. 10 years difference, you still drink soup, but others can only follow the soup.

 

This thing anxious to consume it. Determined to continue losing money for decades. Not to see how much their own products, but the price of imported products can be cut back and cut.

 

Let's talk about the communications industry switch it. 15 years ago, a plate of 200,000. Ten years ago, 100,000. This is normal technological progress. But please note, it is not used technology more NB. Are mature technology for more than 10 years. However, if people monopolize their technology, they can reduce their prices by half in 5 years.

 

However, the most pit is the deflector, an iron plate, used to fill the empty slot, guide the air flow, control equipment temperature. 35 dollars a piece. 1 kg weight. Not yet stainless steel ... for many years do not cut prices. Can you say that this is a good technology? But others monopolize the switch technology, other brands do not recognize, you dare to install themselves, the whole machine is not warranty.

 

10 years ago, domestic exchange began high-end products. BUG super. But the price is low, so since some small cities began to use. Spent three years, some stability, the failure rate is half of the products in Europe and America. As soon as this result came out, the price of imported switchboards started to dive.

 

10 million board, 5 years after 10,000, then 5 years ... a lot of European and American plants have closed down disappeared ...

 

As for the piece of 35 US dollars of iron? Free to send. Later made it clear that, in fact, no iron is also okay, do not go with ...

 

this is the truth. The important thing is not whether their products are refined. But their own ability to let foreigners honestly cut prices.

 

The latecomer is very sad, only forbear. The so-called win-win situation. In fact, a beautiful lie.

 

The beginning is backward incompetence, people say ten thousand ten thousand. Later laggards have some ability. People say I let profit 5000, do not come out to grab your product market ... ah, win-win ...

 

In the past our country's industrial level is low. Cement mill reducer, when the reducer abroad to sell 10 million, the domestic reducer also developed a stable product. Wait until after localization, large foreign reducer has basically withdrawn from the domestic market. Because the domestic may only be three million. The same system of various equipment prices have come down. Only then have the great development of the domestic cement industry, and then today the price of cement has dropped rapidly into a cabbage price. And then there is a great development in the cement industry. With the accumulation of the world's largest cement engineering general contractor, Sinoma International has created a business that Sinoma International's total outsourcing business accounts for 80% of its business. In turn, it created the great development of cement industry in Africa and Southeast Asia. Can you imagine few cement plants in Africa five years ago, only the era of cement importers? Therefore, listening to others that China is a developed country shredder, I heard so cool. Europeans live not out of thin air. When the Chinese can not make things, they can never forget about your lifetime work when they can sell five dollars for fifty. Eighty percent of them pay To Europe and the United States to keep them can leisure. Can let them have a not being bullied face.

 

Or reducer industry. Look at how the European and American countries to gentleman's heart of the villain. Siemens acquisition of a company in 2005, for the giants is no big deal, 1.2 billion euros in the acquisition case, said little big, not small. But it has profoundly affected the pattern of the world reducer industry. Acquired company called Flanders, is the first place in the reducer industry. After being acquired by Siemens, Siemens filled the gap in this piece. But for a GE that competes widely with Siemens in many areas, it can be terrible. Especially in the field of wind power, the key part of the wind power main engine is the reducer, but before GE mainly bought with Flanders, and GE and Siemens are the most direct opponents in this field. The two are American giants, one German giants, Flanders and German companies. Even if the lack of cooperation will not affect the collaboration between GE and Flander it, the end of the story should be everyone together to a happy life. Just that is the story. GE's most direct reaction is to find a business cooperation in China, breaking the cooperation with Flanders because they are afraid of Siemens at a critical time their own neck, so cultivate a Chinese company, just a few years so that this business From the output value of billions of billions into one hundred million level, the main wind power shipments in the world. The international giants all know that being stuck in the neck can not. I was thinking that so many industries in China were found by foreigners so much after the Chinese lost that they made so much money. This example is beyond all limit. Many people still use a pure Looking at the foreigners, that silly or naive it?

 

You think that manufacturing, you can buy with money? Is it something you want to buy?

 

I want to say is that an instrument, if not domestically produced, then foreign products will be sold to you double the price. Only when truly competitive domestic products are produced will their prices fall spontaneously.

 

The inability to industrialize means the need to buy at high prices on the international market and be technically blocked and banned at any time.

 

The inability to industrialize means that the domestic demand for huge procurement eventually only fattened a number of compradors, while only a handful of top engineering students in our country could join high-end international high-paying companies to obtain high salaries. Others would only have to join in with painstaking efforts Foundries.

 

Give you an example of a well-known industry, and a superficial discussion.

 

1, integrated circuit industry localization.

 

Whether precision machine tools, CNC machine tools and other basic industries, or the missile, radar, naval vessels, aerospace and other cutting-edge industries, require integrated circuits as the core. In the early 1980s, 8086 chips need to be imported, at that time the country only how much foreign exchange? Exported by the export of textile products such as furniture or the like exchange of foreign exchange, and then spend high prices from the international market to buy 8086/8088 this tiny cost of the chip, and high-end chip Batumi easily blocked, this sour, simply make people fed up.

 

Microelectronics Institute of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Tsinghua University Microelectronics, Fudan Microelectronics and a number of microelectronics major work is to deal with many countries on China's microelectronics industry mainstream manufacturing technology implementation of the technology blockade, that phase, the main Microelectronics Institute Work is to develop the production process of integrated circuits. In short, when a microelectronics has made 0.6um integrated circuit manufacturing process, we will show the United States and Palestine a message: the country has mastered this technology, if your country continues to block the 0.6um process Of the chip exports to China, or sell high prices to our country, then despise the country will use five years to develop and produce their own, no longer import your country chip. So the US imperialism's trade association will lobby Congress to approve the export of this product to China.

 

At present, China still imports a large number of chips, but on the one hand, mid-chip and the following chips are absolutely domestic-made, only importing high-end chips.

 

Tell you a story, we do analog integrated circuits and radio frequency circuit, if you want to learn from some important foreign chip, then how to do? We will first polish the package, and then remove the chip; with a layer of etching off the upper layer of the chip coating, and then photographed, manual stripping layout, analysis of the circuit simulation with Spectrum simulation tool, Ohyeah! Despise the country to learn, understand, digest ability to laugh at the world.

 

Rely on such a brutal growth means, from 90 years ago began to develop the integrated circuit industry, the industry first to grasp the advanced manufacturing technology as the goal of cutting-edge research and development, access to new chip import rights; and then through multiple channels to seek the world's most advanced chip generation The factory was set up in China and Taiwanese Zhang Rujing started SMIC in Beijing Yizhuang in 2000. Since 2004, the IC industry has been encouraged. At least 2,000 engineers are trained in major universities and colleges every year. Xi'an in 2007 when the Infineon, Qimonda and other IC companies are also booming.

 

Do not know when the financial crisis in 2009, there is no company acquired the core technology of the IC industry in the world, but I know that by 2014, 25 years after the development of the integrated circuit industry, North Microelectronics developed 12 Inch 28nm plasma etching machine fully through the SMIC production line of the entire process of process validation and order. This TMD is a zero breakthrough!

 

2, domestic rail transit equipment

 

It is very difficult to keep up with the development of the international community. China can not remain at the low end of the international industrial chain for a long time and should not be subject to long-term control over key technologies and key equipment. China can not buy a modernity from abroad. (Unless 1.3 billion people work overtime to carry out textile processing to support the modern life of 50 million upper-class people)

 

The field of rail transit is a standard example. I remember in 2010, the NDRC approved a total of 50 subway lines in 25 cities and 25 cities in total. The cost of each metro is about 20 billion yuan, of which electromechanical equipment (locomotives, railways, shield machines, catenaries, screen doors , Vending tickets, etc.) at least 8 billion, 50 lines is 400 billion. Only the formation of China's rail transit equipment R & D and manufacturing system, in order to effectively reduce the cost of the subway.

 

If you buy all imported equipment, mechanical and electrical equipment costs at least 50%

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